Posted on October 17, 2020


Daily requirement
Physiological Function
Deficiency symptoms
Fat soluble Vitamin A (Retinol1 & Retinol2) In green leavse, fruits, tomatoes, Carrots, Fish, Liver oils, liver, butter, kidney, egg-yolk and milk 6,000-8000 i.u. for growing children, during puberty, lactation and pregancy 5,000 i.u. for adults Precusor in the synthesis of light absorbing pigments (Rhodopsin) of the eye. Maintains integrity of epithelial tissue especially mucous membranes. Essential for normal reproduction and lactation. Retarded growth. Night blindness (Nyctalopia). Susceptibility of infection, Defective growth of bone and teeth. Xerophthalmia- dry and inflammed cornea. Keratomalacia- softening of cornea with permanent blindness. Phrynoderma or Toad skin- Skin become rough, dry and keratinised.
Vitamin D (Calciferol) Fish, liver,oil, butter, from exposure of skin to uv radiation. 400-800 i.u. Growth, mineralization of bones, regulates metabolism of calcium and phosphorus. Titany of young, Osteomalacia or adult rickets (soft bone), poor teeth development, dental decay.
Vitamin E (Tocopherols) Wheat, soybean and maize oil, liver, egg, milk, fish 15-20 mgm It acts as a cofactor in electron transport system and also have got anti oxidative effect. It also helps in normal reproduction. Sterility in males (animals), death of embryos in fowls and rats, Necrosis of liver.
Vitamin K (Phylloquinone) Green vegetables, soyabeans, maize oil, tomatoes, Pig’s liver, also synthesized by bacteria in the gut. 5 mgm Essential to production of prothrombin, an essential agent in the clotting of blood. Blood fails to clot, Bile secretion impaired.
Water soluble Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Unpolished cereal grains, pulses, nuts, carrot, turnip, beet, lettuce, pears, beans, yeast, egg-yolk, liver, meat. 0.4 mgm for children, 1.3 mgm for adults It acts as a coenzyme in carbohydrate metabolism- metabolism of pyruvic acid to acetaldehyde- by enzyme co-carboxylase. Beriberi, loss of appetite, reduced motility of digestive tracts, damage to nerves and hearts, Polyneurities in birds. Wernicke’s encephalopathy- a nervous disorder in man takes place.
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Whole grain, green leaves, soyabean, yeast, liver, egg, milk, cheese. 1.5 to 1.8 mgm for adults It acts as prosthetic group of flavoprotein enzymes used in cellular respiration Cheilosis (inflammation and crackin at the corners of the mouth), Glossitis inflammation (ulcers) of the tongues keratities-loss of hair, corneal opacity, Seborrheic dermatities (Dry scaly skin, "Yellow liver" of dogs, curled toe’-paralysis of chicks.
Vitamin B3 (Pantothenic 
Sweet potato, peas, wheat bran, molasses, meat, milk, liver, yeast, egg-yolk. 10 mgm Forms ‘coenzymes A’ whish catalyzes transfer of various carboxylated groups. Gastrointestinal disturbances, Fatigue, poor motor coordination, muscle cramps, Dermatitis in chicks and rats, nerve degeneration of rats.
Vitamin B4 (Choline) Egg, liver, fish, meat, butter, legumes, green vegetables minute Growth promoting, Acetycholine metabolism . Retardation of growth, liver and bone disease, Decrease in protien and lipid meatbolism, kidney disease.
Vitamin B5 PP (Pellagra Preventing) Nicotinic Acid (Niacin) Green vegetables, tomatoes, beans, wheat meal, yeast, meat, egg-yolk, fish, liver, milk 12-18 mgm for adults Converted to nicotinamide, a precursor of NAD and NADP two important conenzymes for redox reaction in the cell Pellegra (damage to skin, lining of intestine and nerves), black tongue in dogs Persosis in birds
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxin) Cereal grains, leafy vegetables, yeast, milk, liver, egg-yolk adults 2.0 mgm, children 0.3 mgm Acts as a coenzyme in enzymatic reaction of transamination and decarboxylation of aminoacid takes place. Irritability, abdominal pain, Anaemia in dogs and pigs, Dermatitis in rtas, Paralysis in pigs rats and chicks.
Vitamin B12 (Cyanaco-
balamin) Vitamin
Fish, meat, milk, liver, egg-yolk   Formation of bllod cells, growth, nucleic acid metabolism. Pernicious anaemia, slow growth in young animals
M or Bc (Folic acid) Green leafy vegetables, soyabeans, liver, yeast, egg-yolk

1 ugm

50 ugm

Essential for growth and formation of blood cells. Used in synthesis of coenzymes of nucleic acid metabolism Aneamia, Nutritional, cytopenia in monkeys, slow growth and anaemia in chicks,rats
Vitamin H (Biotin) Cereal grains, cane,molasses, vegetables, yeasts, egg-yolk, liver, kidney 150-300 ugm Essential for growth, Acts as coenzyme in CO2 fixation and biosynthesis of pyrimidines and fatty acids Dermatitis, thickening of skin in rats and chicks, persosis in birds.
Inositol Lemon, cereal, fruit, meat, liver, yeast minute quantity Acts on growth and fat metabolism Atrophy of liver, hairfall, skin disease.
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) Citrus fruits, tomatoes, amlaki, leafy vegetables 100-150 mgm Acts as a coenzyme in the systhesis of collagen, Maintain integrity of capillary walls, involved in formation of ‘intercellular cement’. Scurvey (bleeding in mucous membrane)


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