Sources & Importance of Minerals in Human metabolism

Posted on October 17, 2020

Sources & Importance of Minerals in Human metabolism

Source Daily requirement
Physiological Function
Deficiency symptoms
1. Calcium

Milk, whole grain cereal, vegetables egg Adults- 0.8 gm Teenager- 1.3-1.4 gm Children – 1.0-1.2 gm


Builds bones and teeth, Muscle contraction, Normal heart rhythms. Nerve irritability, Activation of some enzymes. Retarded bone and teeth mineralization, Fragile bone, Stunted growth, Rickets, Titeny, Dental decay, Osteomalacia.
2. Iron Liver, Meat, egg, bread, cereals, legumes, green vegetables Men -10 mg Women – 12 Children – 1-1.5 mg Constituent of haemoglobin, myoglobin and oxidative enzymes cytochrome. Reduced haemoglobin, anaemia, loss of vigour.
3. Iodine Iodized salt, seafood Adults -0.15-0.30 mg Constituent of thyroxin which regulates rate of energy exchange. Simple goiter with enlarged thyroid, cretinism.
4. Phosphorus Milk, cheese, egg, meat, fish, fowl, legumes, whole grain cereals Adult -1.2 gm Children – 1.0 gm Builds bones and teeth, Buffer salts, Metabolism of fats and carbohydrate, Activates some enzymes, Transport of fatty acids. Poor mineralization of bones, poor growth rickets.
5. Potassium Meat , fish, fowl, cereals, fruits vegetables required in minute quantity Adult -4 gm Intracellular fluid balance, Regulates heart rhythm and nervous and muscular irritability. Diabetic acidosis, adrenal tumours, muscular weakness, nausea, sterility.
6. Sodium Table salt, meat, fish, milk, eggs, baking soda and baking powder Adult -5-15 gm Regulates osmotic pressure, Buffer salts, maintain water balance regulates muscle and nerve
Loss of kidney function, fatigue, cramp, nausea.
7. Chlorine Table salt, meat milk, egg 0.5 gm Regulates osmotic pressure, constituent of gastric juice, maintain acid-base balance. Nausea, diarrhea, muscular cramp.
8. Sulphur Eggs, cheese, milk, meat minute quantity Constituent of hair and nails, insulin, glutathione, cartilage and melanin. Defective development of cartilage and depigmentation.
9. Magnesium Cereals, legumes meat, milk, 300gm Constituent of bones, teeth Activates enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism, Muscle and nerve irritability. Deformed bone and teeth, fatigue, cirrhosis, severe renal disease.
10. Manganese Whole grain cereals legumes, meat, fish, green vegetables 0.3 mg per kg of body wt. Thyroxine formation, Formation of urea related to lipotropic activity of choline, essential for utilization of thiamine and metabolism of carbohydrate. Hampers thyroxine formation, Retardation in growth, fatigue.
11. Copper Liver, meat, legume, whole grain cereal 2 mg Absorption and metabolism if iron, normal haemoglobin synthesis, oxidation of thyrosine to melanin pigmentation metabolism of ascorbic acid. Deficiency leads to anaemia, related growth and depigmentation of skin.
12. Zinc Seafood, liver, wheat, green vegtables 0.3 mg Effects transfer of CO2 for tissue to lung, constituent of digestive enymes for hydrolysis of proteins. Loss of vitality, retarded growth.
13. Cobalt Not known structural component of vit B12 . Vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia.
14. Molybdanum Not known Conversion of uric acid. Affects metabolism of uric acid .
15. Flurine Fluorinated water, milk, egg, sea fish, 0.3-.0.5 mg For proper bone and teeth development . Faulty bone and teeth growth.


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