|Fat soluble Vitamin A (Retinol1 & Retinol2)
||In green leavse, fruits, tomatoes, Carrots, Fish, Liver oils, liver, butter, kidney, egg-yolk and milk
||6,000-8000 i.u. for growing children, during puberty, lactation and pregancy 5,000 i.u. for adults
||Precusor in the synthesis of light absorbing pigments (Rhodopsin) of the eye. Maintains integrity of epithelial tissue especially mucous membranes. Essential for normal reproduction and lactation.
||Retarded growth. Night blindness (Nyctalopia). Susceptibility of infection, Defective growth of bone and teeth. Xerophthalmia- dry and inflammed cornea. Keratomalacia- softening of cornea with permanent blindness. Phrynoderma or Toad skin- Skin become rough, dry and keratinised.
|Vitamin D (Calciferol)
||Fish, liver,oil, butter, from exposure of skin to uv radiation.
||Growth, mineralization of bones, regulates metabolism of calcium and phosphorus.
||Titany of young, Osteomalacia or adult rickets (soft bone), poor teeth development, dental decay.
|Vitamin E (Tocopherols)
||Wheat, soybean and maize oil, liver, egg, milk, fish
||It acts as a cofactor in electron transport system and also have got anti oxidative effect. It also helps in normal reproduction.
||Sterility in males (animals), death of embryos in fowls and rats, Necrosis of liver.
|Vitamin K (Phylloquinone)
||Green vegetables, soyabeans, maize oil, tomatoes, Pig's liver, also synthesized by bacteria in the gut.
||Essential to production of prothrombin, an essential agent in the clotting of blood.
||Blood fails to clot, Bile secretion impaired.
|Water soluble Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
||Unpolished cereal grains, pulses, nuts, carrot, turnip, beet, lettuce, pears, beans, yeast, egg-yolk, liver, meat.
||0.4 mgm for children, 1.3 mgm for adults
||It acts as a coenzyme in carbohydrate metabolism- metabolism of pyruvic acid to acetaldehyde- by enzyme co-carboxylase.
||Beriberi, loss of appetite, reduced motility of digestive tracts, damage to nerves and hearts, Polyneurities in birds. Wernicke's encephalopathy- a nervous disorder in man takes place.
|Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
||Whole grain, green leaves, soyabean, yeast, liver, egg, milk, cheese.
||1.5 to 1.8 mgm for adults
||It acts as prosthetic group of flavoprotein enzymes used in cellular respiration
||Cheilosis (inflammation and crackin at the corners of the mouth), Glossitis inflammation (ulcers) of the tongues keratities-loss of hair, corneal opacity, Seborrheic dermatities (Dry scaly skin, "Yellow liver" of dogs, curled toe'-paralysis of chicks.
|Vitamin B3 (Pantothenic
|Sweet potato, peas, wheat bran, molasses, meat, milk, liver, yeast, egg-yolk.
||Forms 'coenzymes A' whish catalyzes transfer of various carboxylated groups.
||Gastrointestinal disturbances, Fatigue, poor motor coordination, muscle cramps, Dermatitis in chicks and rats, nerve degeneration of rats.
|Vitamin B4 (Choline)
||Egg, liver, fish, meat, butter, legumes, green vegetables
||Growth promoting, Acetycholine metabolism .
||Retardation of growth, liver and bone disease, Decrease in protien and lipid meatbolism, kidney disease.
|Vitamin B5 PP (Pellagra Preventing) Nicotinic Acid (Niacin)
||Green vegetables, tomatoes, beans, wheat meal, yeast, meat, egg-yolk, fish, liver, milk
||12-18 mgm for adults
||Converted to nicotinamide, a precursor of NAD and NADP two important conenzymes for redox reaction in the cell
||Pellegra (damage to skin, lining of intestine and nerves), black tongue in dogs Persosis in birds
|Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxin)
||Cereal grains, leafy vegetables, yeast, milk, liver, egg-yolk
||adults 2.0 mgm, children 0.3 mgm
||Acts as a coenzyme in enzymatic reaction of transamination and decarboxylation of aminoacid takes place.
||Irritability, abdominal pain, Anaemia in dogs and pigs, Dermatitis in rtas, Paralysis in pigs rats and chicks.
|Vitamin B12 (Cyanaco-
|Fish, meat, milk, liver, egg-yolk
||Formation of bllod cells, growth, nucleic acid metabolism.
||Pernicious anaemia, slow growth in young animals
|M or Bc (Folic acid)
||Green leafy vegetables, soyabeans, liver, yeast, egg-yolk
|Essential for growth and formation of blood cells. Used in synthesis of coenzymes of nucleic acid metabolism
||Aneamia, Nutritional, cytopenia in monkeys, slow growth and anaemia in chicks,rats
|Vitamin H (Biotin)
||Cereal grains, cane,molasses, vegetables, yeasts, egg-yolk, liver, kidney
||Essential for growth, Acts as coenzyme in CO2 fixation and biosynthesis of pyrimidines and fatty acids
||Dermatitis, thickening of skin in rats and chicks, persosis in birds.
||Lemon, cereal, fruit, meat, liver, yeast
||Acts on growth and fat metabolism
||Atrophy of liver, hairfall, skin disease.
|Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)
||Citrus fruits, tomatoes, amlaki, leafy vegetables
||Acts as a coenzyme in the systhesis of collagen, Maintain integrity of capillary walls, involved in formation of 'intercellular cement'.
||Scurvey (bleeding in mucous membrane)